National Geographic

Of 70,000 Crustacean Species, Here’s The First Venomous One

If you wanted to find a venomous animal, you could do far worse than picking up a random arthropod—the group of animals that includes spiders, scorpions, centipedes, ants, bees and wasps. The group includes hundreds of thousands of venomous members, who inject their debilitating chemical weapons via fangs and stings.

Within this toxic dynasty, one of the major arthropod groups—the crustaceans—sticks out. There’s no such thing as a venomous crab or lobster, prawn or shrimp. There are some 70,000 species of crustaceans and, until recently, it seemed that all of them were venom-free.

The only exceptions live in coastal caves, which are connected to the ocean by underground tunnels. The dark, salty worlds are home to blind, white, sinuous creatures called remipedes. Although they look a lot like white centipedes, that’s just a coincidence. They’re actually crustaceans, and possibly close relatives of the insects.

The remipedes were first discovered in the 1980s, and named after the Latin for “oar-footed” because of their many pairs of swimming legs. Observant scientists soon noticed that on either side of their head, behind their jaws, they had a pair of fangs —sharp, hollow-tipped and connected to glands. Others noticed them eating other crustaceans in the wild. Connecting the dots, it looked as if these creatures were venomous.

Now, Bjorn von Reumont from the Natural History Museum in London has proved as much. His team has thoroughly described the fangs of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, and characterised the cocktail of toxins in its venom. These creatures are undoubtedly venomous crustaceans, and perhaps the only ones on the planet.

Von Reumont showed that the remipede’s venom system is very sophisticated. One set of muscles contracts the creature’s glands, pumping venom into its fangs. A second set of muscles stabs the fangs forwards, while squeezing a duct to prevent the venom from flowing backwards.

Remipede venom consists of big enzymes like peptidases, which destroy other proteins, and chitinases, which break down the chitin in the external skeletons of arthropods. Together, these substances combine to soften the hard shells of the remipede’s prey, and to digest their innards.

But before a remipede can liquefy its meal, it must first capture it. It probably does that with another chemical—a single unique neurotoxin that’s similar to others found in spider venom. The team thinks that the toxin causes the victim’s motor neurons to fire continuously, paralysing it through its own spasms. “We had to do some work to confirm this, but that was the coolest finding,” says study leader Ronald Jenner. “It makes sense for a blind, aquatic, cave-dwelling predator to have a paralysing toxin so that prey can be instantly overwhelmed.” In a dark, largely empty cave, second chances don’t come often.

Still, the remipede’s venom is weird. Other arthropods, like scorpions or spiders, mainly rely on small proteins that poison nerve cells. The remipede has just the one neurotoxin and relies instead on beefy digestive enzymes. If anything, its venom is more similar to that of vipers and rattlesnakes—a clear case of convergent evolution, where different life-forms independently turn up to the party with the same outfits.

Why? “I don’t know,” says Jenner. It may be that they live in water, while other venomous arthropods are land-lubbers.  What works on land may not work in water. There’s also the fact that creatures like centipedes and scorpions have powerful mouthparts for chewing up their prey. Remipedes seem to feed more like spiders—they liquefy they prey and suck the juices through the shell.

And why are they the only crustaceans to have evolved venom? Again, it’s not clear. Jenner notes that most crustaceans scavenge off debris or feed on small particles in the water. There aren’t many of them that specialise in killing larger prey. “If you want to do that, you either need power or a trick,” says Jenner. The pugilistic mantis shrimps went for power. Remipedes use venom as their trick.

“There might be a few more instances of venomous crustaceans, for which current evidence is anecdotal,” says Jenner. The branchiurans, for example, are a group of fish lice that stab through the skin of their hosts with a sharp spine. That causes heavy bleeding, which “can wreak havoc on the fish and be a real burden on aquaculture operations,” says Jenner. “It would be cool to have a closer look at those.”

Reference: Von Reumont, Blanke, Richter, Alvarez, Bleidorn & Jenner. 2013. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin. Mol Biol Evol http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mst199

There are 8 Comments. Add Yours.

  1. Riven Craft
    October 22, 2013

    Now I’m curious if it has any neighbors who use similar tactics or if it is unique in its home environment.

  2. Isaac Zhao
    October 23, 2013

    It is surely a strange phenomenon. Normally divisions of animals keep to the same tactic. Take the cat family, for example. They all use brute force and aim for the victims neck. Lions all do this, leopards, cheetahs, even our domestic cats (when they’re trying :) ) . You’d think something like the mantis shrimp’s punch or the remipede’s venomous approach would be found more often in crustaceans.Surely it gives them an edge. I wonder if the creation of such weapons drains on other things, like metabolism or stamina. Anyway, fantastic article!

    [Isaac, you're comparing groups at very different resolutions. The cats are a family with around 41 species; the mantis shrimps are an order and there are around four HUNDRED species of them. So, when you say "divisions of animals keep to the same tactic", that's not really true and it depends on what "division" you're looking at. -Ed]

  3. Jan H.
    October 23, 2013

    Well, Crustacea is the traditional sense is paraphyletic, and there are numerous venemous species in Pancrustacea.
    Still a very interesting discovery, as Remipedes are already pretty cool.

  4. Valerie Franck
    October 23, 2013

    I can’t get over how much it looks like a polychaete.

  5. JohnR
    October 24, 2013

    I’m not going to look it up; I’m just going to assume it lives in Australia..

    [Ha! - Ed]

  6. maria arriola
    October 25, 2013

    I didn’t know that these remipedes live in the deepest part of the ocean. It is so dark I wonder how they can see? Which I know they can but its just so amazing how they have the ability to see in really dark places. It actually look like an insect. It probably is part of the insect family. It is so amazing at the amount of legs it has.

    [As said in the piece, they're blind. And not insects. - Ed]

  7. Sean
    November 4, 2013

    Fascinating article, but I’m a bit baffled by one bit –

    “They’re actually crustaceans, and possibly close relatives of the insects.”

    Does this mean that they’re primitive crustaceans similar to insects, or are crustaceans actually paraphyletic with respect to insects?

  8. Randy
    February 5, 2014

    Crustaceans seem to be paraphyletic with insects.

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