Pterosaurs Done Wrong

Pteranodon at the San Diego Natural History Museum. Photo by the author.

Take a glance at the photo above. It’s a snapshot of a life-size Pteranodon model on display at the San Diego Natural History Museum. The flying reptile – restored life size – looks like the standard image of Pteranodon I have seen in museums and books since I was a kid. The large pterosaur is instantly-recognizable thanks to its long, toothless beak and the slightly curved crest jutting from the back of its head.

Now look at this. Screwy, isnt’ it? The illustration – by Nemo Ramjet – is based on the strange notions of artist David Peters. For years, Peters has promulgated his bizarre, unsubstantiated ideas in print and online. His latest project is

As paleontologist and blog friend Darren Naish has just described, Peters’ website is a den of misconceptions and idiosyncratic ideas based on faulty evidence. If you want to see all the gory details, read Darren’s post, but suffice it to say that does not actually reflect what scientists currently understand about pterosaurs, dinosaurs, and the various other prehistoric creatures that Peters has illustrated.

If Peters’ website were an obscure corner of the web, it wouldn’t really matter. But his illustrations look so good, and his presentation is so shiny, that unwary visitors are easily sucked into the morass of misinformation. (io9 fell for Peters’ unsubstantiated claims a few months ago. See this post from for context.) As Darren pointed out in his comprehensive takedown, Peters’ inaccurate site is top-rated on Google when you search for the names of various prehistoric beasties. This is a big problem, since Peters’ reconstructions and ideas about evolutionary relationships don’t actually represent what professional paleontologists have come to understand. Experts can easily spot the flaws, but people who are looking for accurate information on the fossil creatures Peters has illustrated can easily be led astray.

The episode reminds me of the push to get scientists to do more online and social media outreach. I’m all for paleontologists and paleo-artists making the most of blogs, Twitter, and personal websites, but the same tools can also be used by people who maintain unsupported, fringe ideas. I don’t doubt Peters’ enthusiasm and love of science, but that doesn’t change that fact that he’s pushing a misleading vision of how paleontologists study and understand prehistoric life.

So what can we do? Calling out bullshit when we see it is one step, but that, alone, isn’t enough. We need more professional paleontologists to take an active role in communicating science, especially when misinformation runs rampant. And by “professionals” I don’t just mean curators and other experts who make their living as paleontologists. I mean people who act professionally – people with a healthy dose of skepticism who understand how ideas are investigated and tested. As it stands now, paleontology blogs are relatively few and don’t form any kind of cohesive community. I’d love to see this situation change.

7 thoughts on “Pterosaurs Done Wrong

    1. Bill – you ought to read Darren Naish’s post about it over at Tet Zoo. I’d approximate that 90+% of the info on Peters’ website are personal hypotheses made after looking at photos of fossils. Peters does not look at actual fossils, he only looks at photographs and identifies slight changes in color of the slab as all manner of weird soft tissue impressions.

      1. As described by Darren, Peters also uses an simplistic imaging technique on these pictures* that sounds like it basically makes for a bunch of lines on each picture from which any number of possible patterns could be constructed. It seems a large part of Peters’ mistakes are due to pareidolia.

  1. Good work spreading the word.

    Besides falling for David Peters misinformation, io9 also stole my artwork (the top picture in the article), ingored my emails about the matter and actually censored my comment on the article. The theft might have been unintentional, since PrimevalWiki stole it first (they have ignored me as well), but ingoring the emails certainly was not.

    With work ethics like this, I wouldn’t be surprised at all if they knew all along the vampire pterosaur stuff was rubbish but decided to write it anyway.

  2. Nail on the head, Brian. The problem is not Peters’ site, it is the fact that people looking for information end up on his site because there is no proper alternative. As I commented at Darren’s, the best countermeasure would be a properly-constructed, easily accessible paleontology website to which the paleo community actively contributes.

  3. Flight is only possible in a very narrow range of engineering specifications. It’s not difficult to spot something that would not be able to fly no matter if it’s made out of flesh, or out of aluminium.

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